Hefting: creating a sense of belonging requiring no fences

I have recently learned from the book The Shepherd's Life, by James Rebanks, about hefting. As he describes it, in vast mountainous areas, such as in The Lake District, sheep do not wander off because of an inherited sense of belonging to a landscape, passed down 'by their mothers as lambs - an unbroken chain …

Ear Notching

photo: screen shot from lecture of James Rebanks whilst speaking at the 2018 Practical Farmers of Iowa Conference, showing an identification guide for shepherds. (see 51:15 mins) 'Ear notching is part of a culture of sheep marking that started thousands of years ago. A mark tells what sheep belongs to what flock... My hunch is, …